Where a transaction resulting from an unlawful act indicates that, when separated from the illegal party, they are considered a valid agreement, those transactions have a value in the eyes of the law, regardless of the illegality of the agreement . A composition with creditors is an agreement not only between the debtor and the creditors, but also between the creditors themselves to accept less than everyone owes. It is a contract and such an agreement is largely governed by contract law. There must be a meeting of minds or mutual consent between the debtor and the creditors before creating a composition. A debtor must accept an offer from creditors to accept partial payment of the unpaid amounts in order for the composition to be binding. Creditors themselves must also accept the amount they accept to satisfy their debts. They rely on reciprocal concessions of their full payment rights in order to achieve the common goal of guaranteeing their claims. 1. A null agreement is void from the outset (i.e. cancelled from the initio), while a null contract is valid at the time of its creation, but later becomes invalidated.
Empty contracts may arise if one of the parties is unable to fully understand the effects of the agreement. For example, a person with a mental disability or an intoxicated person may not be consistent enough to properly record the parameters of the agreement, rendering it invalid. In addition, agreements made by minors may be considered unseable; However, some contracts with minors who have obtained the consent of a parent or legal guardian may be enforceable. If a creditor secretly pays more or obtains a preference, other creditors can cancel the agreement because the law protects against the undue treatment of creditors. The preferred creditor cannot enforce the agreement or invalidate it. The debtor is entitled to recover payments made to such a creditor under the theory that a debtor is threatened by pressure from a creditor entitled to compel the debtor to go bankrupt by refusing to enter into a composition.